Ovarian Cysts –Know About Symptoms, Causes and Treatment Options


In the United States, over 2,50,000 women are diagnosed with ovarian cyst each year, while worldwide, 5%-10% women undergo surgery, according to an article on Research Gate. In India, 1 in every 4 women suffers from Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome(PCOS). Fluid filled or solid sac-like structures grow in or on the ovaries. It is usually seen in women with regular periods or those who are pregnant. These cysts are mostly harmless and do not exhibit symptoms.

Cysts over 5 cm in size are considered large, while those over 15cm are termed giants. These can pose serious threats, such as internal bleeding or ovarian cancer, if left untreated. You need to see the best gynaecologist, such as those in Bangalore, if you have been facing pelvic pressure or the urge to urinate frequently. Before the visit, here’s all you need to know about this medical condition.

Symptoms of Ovarian Cyst 

If the cyst is small, there would be no signs of discomfort. However, in case it ruptures or causes a twist in your ovaries, you will experience severe pain in the lower abdomen, along with nausea and fever. The other noticeable symptoms include:

  • Sudden rapid weight gain
  • A feeling of fullness in the abdomen
  • Abdominal bloating, swelling and indigestion 
  • Unusual bleeding from the vagina 
  • A sense of tenderness in either or both breasts
  • Constant urges of bowel movements, which can be exceedingly painful 
  • Severe pain in the lower back and thigh muscles
  • Dull pain near the cyst location
  • Prolonged menstrual irregularities, with pain
  • Painful sexual intercourse each time

Functional cysts are usually common in women who are not menopausal. Other types are dermoid cysts, chocolate cyst and corpus luteum cyst. Whether or not you are in the reproductive years, consulting best gynaecologist, such as those in Bangalore, is a must.

Causes of Ovarian Cysts
The causes of cysts depend on age and existing medical conditions to a great extent. 

  • Endometriosis: This is a condition where the endometrial cells and tissues start growing outside the uterus. When they spread to the ovaries, there could be occasional bleeding over time. Further, it could lead to the formation of brown and red colored growths. These growths can be extremely painful, particularly while having sex or during menstruation.
  • Pregnancy: Cysts are usually common in early pregnancy and are harmless. However, if they rupture, there could be a sudden, severe pain. It is crucial to get the cyst treated, even if it does not possess threats. Otherwise, expecting mothers might start suffering from gestational diabetes, preterm delivery and high blood pressure. 
  • Menstrual Abnormalities: In the middle of your menstrual cycle, one egg can exit the follicle and move down the fallopian tubes. If this phenomenon does not occur and the follicles continue to grow, a cyst can develop at the site. 
  • Hormonal Changes: After the eggs are released, progesterone and estrogen are produced. Often, a certain amount of fluid gets accumulated in the follicle,which later grows into a cyst. In fact, drugs used to induce ovulation can also cause cystic formations.

Treatment of Ovarian Cysts

A cyst is either removed completely or efforts are made to shrink it. It all depends on the size and potential danger it might cause. The different treatment options available include:

  • Laparoscopy: A small abdominal incision is made, through which the cyst is removed using a laparoscope. The process rarely has side effects. 
  • Laparotomy: If the cyst is larger, a bigger incision is required. This helps to remove the cyst comfortably.
  • Hormonal Birth Control Pills: Vaginal rings, shots, oral contraceptives and patches can keep new cysts from developing. This can also minimize the risk of ovarian cancer.

The best maternity hospital in Hebbal usually prescribes steps to lower the risk of developing cysts. However, even if you develop a growth, effective treatments can ensure a healthy life ahead.

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